This tortricid is possibly the most damaging pest for vine crops in our country. It is also known as the European grapevine moth or European grape worm.
There are also other species that are known as cluster moths, amongst which we can name: Eupoecilia (Clysia) ambiguella and Cryptoblabes gnidiella.
However, Lobesia botrana is the most harmful and widespread pest of all the grapevine species. Only in the more humid areas of the North could Clysia ambiguella have any impact.
This second species is the one that causes the most damage to vineyards in other more humid countries, such as France or Northern Italy.
Morphology and biology
The adult has an approximate wingspan of 12 mm and brown wings that are mottled with light and dark blotches. The larva is green or sometimes brown with a brownish-grey head. The pupa is protected by a white silken cocoon. The eggs are a yellowish colour and have an oval shape. The larvae are laid individually on the grapes, looking like small drops of wax.
The larva hibernates in the form of a chrysalis, hiding in the bark of the vine trees and they can also be found on the ground or on the edges of leaves
Lobesia botrana larva
Lobesia botrana pupa
In Spring, the adults emerge in stages and fly at night. The first generation lays its eggs on the corolla of the flowers. Each female lays 50 to 80 eggs which normally hatch in a week. The larvae grow inside the clusters by connecting the flower buds with silk threads and forming masses.
They pupate on the leaves or on the bark of the grapevines and then a new generation of adults begins to hatch.
The second and third generations of adults lay their eggs on the grapes, preferably if they are smooth and dry. They also look for shaded areas and shelter to stop the eggs from drying out.
The presence of moisture or sulphur powder on the vines stops the eggs from being laid.
Lobesia botrana adults
There can be 2 generations in regions with a colder climate and 3 generations in Mediterranean regions and the South, although this can vary depending on the climate each year.
The optimum amount of humidity for Lobesia botrana to develop is between 40% and 70%, whereas for Eupoecilia (Clysia) ambiguella it exceeds 75%.
Drought and high summer temperatures are important factors of death, which can lead to a high mortality rate of the eggs.
The developmental threshold for larvae is 10°C. The photoperiod determines the entrance into diapause. The insects coming from eggs laid after the month of July will enter diapause when they come to pupate.
All of these climatic factors influence in the evolution of the pest and therefore the damage it can cause, as these are greater with 3 generations a year.
The first generation causes damage to the floral buds and flowers, but this is of little importance as it does not affect the quantity or quality of the crops.
The 2nd and 3rd generations cause direct damage to the grapes by entering inside and feeding on them. This then translates into a loss of commercial value of the grapes.
The most serious damage that the 2nd and 3rd generation larvae cause, consists of wounds that they open in the fruit.
This is an entry route for rot to set in the cluster (especially Botrytis), which can become a very serious problem.
Grapes damaged by Lobesia botrana
Detection and monitoring
1 to 2 traps per hectare should be placed at the same height as the crops. They can be placed on the vines or on specific supports. The traps should be placed at the beginning of the flowering period.s
ECONEX WHITE TRIANGULAR
trap placed in a vineyard to monitor Lobesia botrana
The males of this species are mainly captured in order to reduce mating, meaning that the unfertilised females will lay unviable eggs. Therefore, it greatly reduces the population of the pest.
For mass trapping, the number of traps per surface area must be increased, depending on the location and uniformity of the plots.
One trap controls a surface area between 500 and 1.000 m2. This means a density of 10 to 20 traps per hectare.
ECONEX WHITE TRIANGULAR
trap where the captures of Lobesia botrana can be observed
Period of use
To obtain good control of the European grapevine moth, it is advisable to combine two methods: detection and monitoring; and mass trapping.
In Spring, 1 to 2 traps per hectare should be placed for the detection of the pest and observation of its population levels.
With tolerance thresholds established in each area, the moment to adopt control measures, in this case mass trapping, is then defined.
The tolerance threshold for Lobesia botrana is very low and varies depending on the area. In general, captures per trap and per day are between 1 and 3.
Pheromones and traps
An ECONEX WHITE TRIANGULAR without sheets or ECONEX DISPOSABLE WHITE TRIANGULAR trap and a pheromone diffuser ECONEX LOBESIA BOTRANA 2 MG 60 DAYS.
The ECONEX WHITE TRIANGULAR without sheets trap is activated by placing an ECONEX SHEET FOR TRIANGULAR on its base.
The sheet is impregnated with a pressure-sensitive adhesive, without solvents, in which the insects are trapped. The ECONEX DISPOSABLE WHITE TRIANGULAR está recubierta en su cara interior por una película de adhesivo de contacto, sin
disolventes, para la retención de los insectos.
Both traps stand out because they are easy to use, and remain operative until the pheromone runs out or the sticky sheet (adhesive surface) is saturated.
The pheromone diffuser is placed inside the trap on the sticky sheet (adhesive surface).
ECONEX LOBESIA BOTRANA 2 MG 60 DAYS pheromone diffuser and presentation of the product
ECONEX FOLDING WHITE TRIANGULAR WITHOUT SHEETS
ECONEX DISPOSABLE WHITE TRIANGULAR
ECONEX SHEET FOR TRIANGULAR 1 UNIT
Factors that influence in the number of traps needed
The pest population, the bordering crops, the level of control required, etc.
One important factor is the size of the crops. In small and irregular crops, a greater number of traps are required than in larger and more uniform plots.
Another important factor is the distance between plots that have Lobesia botrana. In cases like this, the borders of the plots must be reinforced, so it could be necessary to place up to 20 traps per hectare or even more for mass trapping.
ECONEX LOBESIA BOTRANA 2 MG 60 DAYS
Corrugated cardboard box of 400 units (20 packs of 20 units).
Box size: 0.32 x 0.24 x 0.22 m (length x width x height).
Box weight: 1.5 kg.
Pack of 20 units
Includes a product information leaflet
Box of 400 units.
(20 packs x 20 units)
ECONEX LOBESIA BOTRANA 2 MG 60 DAYS LEAFLET
The leaflet can be downloaded in PDF format by clicking on the image.
ECONEX WEB RESOURCES
Section of the ECONEX corporate website that allows you access to online information about ECONEX solutions for the biocontrol of other relevant agricultural and forest pests.
To access ECONEX WEB RESOURCES click on the image.